Mercedes S-class W202
1993-2000 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1.2. The general data
+ 2. Maintenance service
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Greasing system
+ 5. Cooling system
+ 6. Heating, ventilation
+ 7. Ignition system
+ 8. Fuel system
+ 9. Transmission
+ 10. A running gear
- 11. A steering
11.2. The block of an inflatable pillow of safety on a steering wheel
11.3. A steering wheel
11.4. A steering trapeze
11.5. Cuffs of hinges of a steering trapeze
11.6. The pump of the hydraulic booster of a wheel
11.7. Disorder-convergence installation
11.8. Easily and easy
11.9. Maintenance service of system of a steering
11.10. Diagnostics of malfunctions of system of a steering
+ 12. Brake system
+ 13. A body
+ 14. An electric equipment
+ 14.2. Electroschemes
The person always aspires to receive a return maximum at a minimum of the spent efforts. At first to it began to go laziness on foot – and there was a car. Shortly "the hardworking" mankind with horror has found out, what even on twisting a wheel, forces it is necessary to spend not too a little. Also has reflected, as though the heavy fate to facilitate...
As a result of these reflexions in a XIX-th century the concept of the amplifier of a steering was born. After occurrence in streets of cities of supersize buses with the steam engine it became necessary to facilitate work of drivers operating them. Has begun search of the constructive decisions, allowing to reduce effort at steering wheel turn.
In 1925 in the USA Frensis Davis one of the first were patented by the hydraulic amplifier of a steering, and in 1933 the concern "Dzheneral Motors" already intended to establish it on the car "Cadillac" with двенадцатицилиндровым the engine. By 1951 company "Crysler" has mastered manufacture of hydraulic boosters of a wheel and from now on has started to equip with it many models. Firm "Фиат" was the first manufacturer of the cars who have offered installation of the hydraulic booster of a steering as the additional equipment of model "519". Now as a result of occurrence of front-wheel cars, use of tyres большего the size and weight, a suspension bracket with the complicated kinematics there is a necessity for application of amplifiers of a steering even on small cars. As appears from the name, the given device is based on use of a principle of hydraulics. Pressure in the system filled with a special liquid, is created by the hydraulic pump put in action коленвалом of the engine. In a design it is provided золотниковый the valve which at wheel turn switches liquid giving in this or that cavity, providing additional influence on the executive mechanism of a steering (a reducer or рейку). Originally designs of a steering with the hydraulic booster were imperfect and had a number of lacks. For example, they reduced effort at driving so that was lost информативность a steering. Such systems were established on the car up to 80th years. To easy itself to present, how much dangerously to "go too far" at a manipulation a wheel, carrying out turn at great speed.
From here the basic requirements to which there should correspond the hydraulic booster mechanism follow. The problem consists in making поворачивание a lung at maneuvering with small speed and more notable on effort to a steering wheel at movement with greater speed that driving became as more as possible safe.
At the majority of hydraulic boosters without dependence from speed of movement of the car the strengthening factor remains to constants. However the increasing number of cars arriving on the market is equipped today with systems with variable factor of strengthening at which strengthening degree already changes depending on speed of movement of the car. They provide exact and fast reaction at car movement on turns and demanded effort at maneuvering of the car with small speed.
One of ways of achievement of it is use рейки the steering mechanism with the variable relation of gear gearing. With that end in view on length рейки the step and diameter делительной circles of teeths changes, and on a gear wheel the step of teeths remains to constants. When car wheels are exposed for movement in a direct direction, transfer number of the steering mechanism equal to unit and factor of strengthening the least, but in process of steering wheel approach to its extreme positions, the transfer number increases also the effort necessary for поворачивания of wheels, decreases. The hydraulic booster of the steering mechanism operated the computer, also ceases to be something unusual. Such systems of a steering process the information from a car speedometer. Their work is defined not only number of turns of the engine, but also speed of movement of the car. The computer microprocessor analyzes signals arriving from the gauge and calculates factor of strengthening demanded on everyone moment which is realised by means of the electrohydraulic converter.
Idea of developers of such systems: to take best of two kinds of a steering – at speeds, characteristic for паркования the car, to make a steering the easiest, and at movement with high speed amplifier action to reduce to such degree that the system worked almost the same as a usual mechanical steering without the amplifier.